Per-Analysis Network Routing

With the more advanced per-analysis routing, it is naturally also possible to have one default route - a setup that used to be popular before, when the more luxurious routing was not yet available.

In our examples, we’ll be focusing on KVM as it is our default machinery choice.


In case if you see proxy IP:PORT in networking for example as tor 9040 port. It happens due that you have installed docker on your host and it breaks some networking filters.

To fix proxy IP:PORT problem, you need to run following script. Save it to file, give execution permission with sudo a+x and run it with proper arguments:

# Fix when docker breaks your iptables
if [ $# -eq 0 ] || [ $# -lt 2 ]; then
    echo "$0 <network range> <vir_iface> <real_iface>"
    echo "    example: $0 virbr0 eno0"
    exit 1

echo "[+] Setting iptables"
iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o "$2" -j MASQUERADE
iptables -A FORWARD -i "$2" -o "$2" -m state --state RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
iptables -A FORWARD -i "$2" -o "$2" -j ACCEPT
iptables -I FORWARD -m physdev --physdev-is-bridged -j ACCEPT
iptables -I FORWARD -o "$2" -d  "$1"/24 -j ACCEPT
iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -s "$1"/24 -j MASQUERADE
iptables -A FORWARD -o "$2" -m state --state RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
iptables -A FORWARD -i "$2" -o "$3" -j ACCEPT
iptables -A FORWARD -i "$2" -o lo -j ACCEPT

echo "[+] Setting network options"
    echo "net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-ip6tables=0";
    echo "net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-iptables=0";
    echo "net.bridge.bridge-nf-call-arptables=0";
    echo "net.ipv4.conf.all.forwarding=1";
    echo "net.ipv4.ip_forward=1";
} >> /etc/sysctl.conf
sysctl -p
echo "iptables -A FORWARD -i $2 -o $2 -j ACCEPT" >> /etc/network/if-pre-up.d/kvm_bridge_iptables

virsh nwfilter-list

To make it permanent you can use iptables-save.

Per-Analysis Network Routing Options

Following is the list of available routing options.

Routing Option


None Routing

No routing whatsoever, the only option that does not require the Rooter to be run (and therefore also the default routing option).

Drop Routing

Completely drops all non-CAPE traffic, including traffic within the VMs’ subnet.

Internet Routing

Full internet access as provided by the given network interface

InetSim Routing

Routes all traffic to an InetSim instance - which provides fake services - running on the host machine.

Tor Routing

Routes all traffic through Tor.

VPN Routing

Routes all traffic through one of perhaps multiple pre-defined VPN endpoints.

Wireguard VPN

Routes all traffic through one of perhaps multiple pre-defined VPN endpoints.

Using Per-Analysis Network Routing

Now that you know the available network routing options, it is time to use them in practice. Assuming CAPE has been configured properly taking advantage of its features is as simple as starting the CAPE Rooter and choosing a network routing option for your analysis.

Documentation on starting the Rooter may be found in the CAPE Rooter Usage document.

Both global routing and per-analysis routing require ip forwarding to be enabled:

$ echo 1 | sudo tee -a /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
$ sudo sysctl -w net.ipv4.ip_forward=1


Please be aware by default these changes do not persist and will be reset after a system restart.

Configuring netplan

In modern releases of Ubuntu, all network configuration is handled by netplan, including routing tables.

If you are using Ubuntu Server, disable cloud-init, which is used by default.

Do this by writing a file at /etc/cloud/cloud.cfg.d/99-disable-network-config.cfg, with the content network: {config: disabled}, then delete /etc/netplan/50-cloud-init.yaml.

If you are using a desktop version of Ubuntu instead, you will need to disable NetworkManager and enable networkd.

sudo systemctl stop NetworkManager
sudo systemctl disable NetworkManager
sudo systemctl mask NetworkManager

sudo systemctl unmask systemd-networkd
sudo systemctl enable systemd-networkd
sudo systemctl start systemd-networkd

Next, create your own netplan configuration file manually at /etc/netplan/99-manual.yaml

The example netplan configuration below has a 5G hotspot interface named enx00a0c6000000 for Internet Routing (aka the dirty line) and a management interface named enp8s0 for hosting the CAPE web UI, SSH and other administrative services. In this configuration the dirty line is used as the default gateway for all internet traffic on the host. This helps prevent network leaks, firewall IDS/IPS issues, and keeps administrative traffic separate, where it could be placed in its own subnet for additional security.

You will need to replace the interface names and IP addresses to reflect your own system.

Each interface configuration needs a routes section that describes the routes that can be accessed via that interface. In order for the configuration to work with CAPE’s per-analysis routing, each routes section must have an arbitrary but unique table integer value.

    version: 2
    renderer: networkd
            addresses: [ "", "::1/128", "" ]
            dhcp4: no
            addresses: [ "" ]
                addresses: [ "" ]
                - to: default
                - to:
                  table: 101
             - from:
               table: 101
            dhcp4: no
            addresses: [ "" ]
                - to:
                  table: 102
                - from:
                  table: 102

Run sudo netplan apply to apply the new netplan configuration. You can verify the new routing rules and tables have been created with:

  • ip r. To show ‘main’ table.

  • ip r show table X. To show ‘X’ table, where X is either the number or the name you specified in the netplan file.

  • ip r show table all. To show all routing rules form all tables.


There are some considerations you should take into account when configuring and setting netplan and others components necessary so as to provide the Hosts with Internet connection:

  • IP forwarding MUST be enabled.

  • The routing table NUMBER specified in the netplan config file should be the SAME as the one specified in /etc/iproute2/rt_tables.

  • The routing table NAME specified in /etc/iproute2/rt_tables (next to its number) should be the SAME as the one specified specified in routing.conf (with the rt_table field).

Protecting host ports

By default, most Linux network services listen on all network interface interfaces/addresses, leaving the services running on the host machine exposed to potential attacks from the analysis VMs.

To mitigate this issue, use the ufw firewall included with Ubuntu. It will not break CAPE’s per-analysis network routing.

Allow access to administrative services using the interface that is being used for management of the sandbox. Network interface details can be found by using the ip addr command.

In this example the management interface name is enp8s0, with an IP address of Replace these values with the proper values for your server.

sudo ufw allow in on enp8s0 to port 80 proto tcp

sudo ufw allow in on enp8s0 to port 443 proto tcp

sudo ufw allow in on enp8s0 to port 22 proto tcp

# SMB (smbd is enabled by default on desktop versions of Ubuntu)
sudo ufw allow in on enp8s0 to port 22 proto tcp

# RDP (if xrdp is used on the server)
sudo ufw allow in on enp8s0 to port 445 proto tcp

Allow analysis VMs to access the CAPE result server, which used TCP port 2042 by default.

In this example the host interface name is virbr1 with an IP address of Replace these values with the proper values for your server.

sudo ufw allow in on virbr1 to port 2042 proto tcp

Enable the firewall after all of the rules have ben configured.

sudo ufw enable

None Routing

The default routing mechanism in the sense that CAPE allows the analysis to route as defined by a third party. As in, it doesn’t do anything. One may use the none routing

Drop Routing

The drop routing option is somewhat like a default None Routing setup (as in, in a machine where no global iptables rules have been created providing full internet access to VMs or so), except that it is much more aggressive in actively locking down the internet access provided to the VM.

With drop routing the only traffic possible is internal CAPE traffic and hence any DNS requests or outgoing TCP/IP connections are blocked.

Internet Routing

By using the internet routing one may provide full internet access to VMs through one of the connected network interfaces. We also refer to this option as the dirty line due to its nature of allowing all potentially malicious samples to connect to the internet through the same uplink.


It is required to register the dirty line network interface with iproute2 as described in the Configuring netplan section.

InetSim Routing

For those that have not heard of InetSim, it’s a project that provides fake services for malware to talk to. To use InetSim routing one will have to set up InetSim on the host machine (or in a separate VM) and configure CAPE so that it knows where to find the InetSim server.

The configuration for InetSim is self-explanatory and can be found as part of the $CWD/conf/routing.conf configuration file:

enabled = yes
server =

To quickly get started with InetSim it is possible to download the latest version of the REMnux distribution which features - among many other tools - the latest version of InetSim. Naturally, this VM will require a static IP address which should then be configured in the routing.conf configuration file.

We suggest running it on a virtual machine to avoid any possible leaks

Tor Routing


Although we highly discourage the use of Tor for malware analysis - the maintainers of Tor exit nodes already have a hard enough time keeping up their servers - it is a well-supported feature.

First of all, Tor will have to be installed. Please find instructions on installing the latest stable version of Tor here.

We’ll then have to modify the Tor configuration file (not talking about CAPE’s configuration for Tor yet!) To do so, we will have to provide Tor with the listening address and port for TCP/IP connections and UDP requests. For a default KVM setup, where the host machine has IP address, the following lines will have to be configured in the /etc/tor/torrc file:


Don’t forget to restart Tor (/etc/init.d/tor restart). That leaves us with the Tor configuration for Cuckoo, which may be found in the $CWD/conf/routing.conf file. The configuration is pretty self-explanatory so we’ll leave filling it out as an exercise to the reader (in fact, toggling the enabled field goes a long way):

enabled = yes
dnsport = 5353
proxyport = 9040

Note that the port numbers in the /etc/tor/torrc and $CWD/conf/routing.conf files must match for the two to interact correctly.

VPN Routing

It is possible to route analyses through multiple VPNs. By defining a couple of VPNs, perhaps ending up in different countries, it may be possible to see if potentially malicious samples behave differently depending on the country of origin of their IP address.

The configuration for a VPN is much like the configuration of a VM. For each VPN you will need one section in the $CWD/conf/routing.conf configuration file detailing the relevant information for the VPN. In the configuration, the VPN will also have to be registered in the list of available VPNs (the same as you’d do for registering more VMs).

Configuration for a single VPN looks roughly as follows:

# Are VPNs enabled?
enabled = yes

# Comma-separated list of the available VPNs.
vpns = vpn0

# Name of this VPN. The name is represented by the filepath to the
# configuration file, e.g., CAPE would represent /etc/openvpn/cuckoo.conf
# Note that you can't assign the names "none" and "internet" as those would
# conflict with the routing section in cuckoo.conf.
name = vpn0

# The description of this VPN which will be displayed in the web interface.
# Can be used to for example describe the country where this VPN ends up.
description = Spain, Europe

# The tun device hardcoded for this VPN. Each VPN *must* be configured to use
# a hardcoded/persistent tun device by explicitly adding the line "dev tunX"
# to its configuration (e.g., /etc/openvpn/vpn1.conf) where X in tunX is a
# unique number between 0 and your lucky number of choice.
interface = tun0

# Routing table name/id for this VPN. If table name is used it *must* be
# added to /etc/iproute2/rt_tables as "<id> <name>" line (e.g., "201 tun0").
# ID and name must be unique across the system (refer /etc/iproute2/rt_tables
# for existing names and IDs).
rt_table = tun0


It is required to register each VPN network interface with netplan as described in the Configuring netplan section.

Quick and dirty example of iproute2 configuration for VPN:

        5 host1
        6 host2
        7 host3

        name = X.ovpn
        description = X
        interface = tunX
        rt_table = host1

Bear in mind that you will need to adjust some values inside of VPN route script. Read it!

VPN persistence & auto-restart source:

1. Run the command:
    # sudo nano /etc/default/openvpn`
    and uncomment, or remove, the “#” in front of AUTOSTART="all"
    then press ‘Ctrl X’ to save the changes and exit the text editor.

2. Move the .ovpn file with the desired server location to the ‘/etc/openvpn’ folder:
    # sudo cp /location/whereYouDownloadedConfigFilesTo/Germany.ovpn /etc/openvpn/

3. In the ‘/etc/openvpn’ folder, create a text file called login.creds:
    # sudo nano /etc/openvpn/login.creds
    and enter your IVPN Account ID (starts with ‘ivpn’) on the first line and any non-blank text on the 2nd line, then press ‘Ctrl X’ to save the changes and exit the text editor.

4. Change the permissions on the pass file to protect the credentials:
    # sudo chmod 400 /etc/openvpn/login.creds

5. Rename the .ovpn file to ‘client.conf’:
    # sudo cp /etc/openvpn/Germany.ovpn /etc/openvpn/client.conf

6. Reload the daemons:
# sudo systemctl daemon-reload

1. Start the OpenVPN service:
    # sudo systemctl start openvpn

2. Test if it is working by checking the external IP:
    # curl

3. If curl is not installed:
    # sudo apt install curl

Wireguard VPN

Setup Wireguard

Install wireguard:

sudo apt install wireguard

Download Wireguard configurations from your VPN provider and copy them into /etc/wireguard/wgX.conf. E.g.:


Each configuration is for a different exit destination.

An example config for wg1.conf:

# VPN-exit-CC
PrivateKey = <REMOVED>
Address =
Table = 420

# Following 2 lines added in attempt to allow local traffic
PreUp = iptables -A FORWARD -i %i -j ACCEPT; iptables -A FORWARD -o %i -j ACCEPT; iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o %i -j MASQUERADE
PreDown = iptables -D FORWARD -i %i -j ACCEPT; iptables -D FORWARD -o %i -j ACCEPT; iptables -t nat -D POSTROUTING -o %i -j MASQUERADE

PublicKey = <REMOVED>
AllowedIPs =
Endpoint =

The only changes I made to the original file from my VPN provider was adding Table = 420 and the PreUp and PreDown lines to configure iptables.

Then start the VPN: wg-quick up wg1. If all goes well you can run wg and see that the tunnel is active. If you want to test it’s working I suggest:

curl --interface wg1

Example snippet from /opt/CAPEv2/conf/routing.conf configuration:

name = vpn0
description = vpn_CC_wg1
interface = wg1
rt_table = wg1


It is required to register each VPN network interface with netplan as described in the Configuring netplan section. Check quick and dirty note in original VPN section.

SOCKS Routing

You also can use socks proxy servers to route your traffic. To manage your socks server you can use Socks5man software. Building them by yourself, using your favorite software, buying, etc The configuration is pretty simple and looks like VPN, but you don’t need to configure anything else

Requires to install dependency: poetry run pip install git+


# By default we disable socks5 support as it requires running utils/ as
# root next to (which should run as regular user).
enabled = no

# Comma-separated list of the available proxies.
proxies = socks_CC

name = CC_socks
description = CC_socks
proxyport = 5000
dnsport = 10000


Configuring the Internet connection in the Hosts (VMs) can become a tedious task given the elements involved in the correct functioning. Here you can find several ways of debugging the connections from and to the Hosts besides -d.

Manually testing Internet connection

You can manually test the Internet connection from inside the VMs without the need of performing any analysis. To do so, you have to use the . This utility allows you to enable or disable specific routes and debug them. It is a “Standalone script to debug VM problems that allows to enable routing on VM”.

First, stop the cape-rooter service with:

$ sudo systemctl stop cape-rooter.service

Assuming you already have any VM running, to test the internet connection using you have to execute the following commands:

$ sudo python3 -r internet -e --vm-name win1 --verbose
$ sudo python3 -r internet -d --vm-name win1 --verbose

The -e flag is used to enable a route and -d is used to disable it. You can read more about all the options the utility has by running:

$ sudo python3 -h


The –vm-name parameters expects any ID from the ones in <machinery>.conf, not the label you named each VM with. To see the available options you can execute $ sudo python3 --show-vm-names.

Whenever you use the utility to either enable or disable any given route, there are changes made to iptables are you should be able to see them take place.

For instance, this is how it looks BEFORE enabling any route:

$ ip rule
0:  from all lookup local
32766:  from all lookup main
32767:  from all lookup default

And this is how it looks AFTER executing the following commands:

$ sudo python3 -r internet -e --vm-name win1 --verbose
internet eno1 eno1 {'label': 'win10', 'platform': 'windows', 'ip': 'X.X.X.133', 'arch': 'x64'} None None
$ sudo python3 -r internet -e --vm-name win2 --verbose
internet eno1 eno1 {'label': 'win10-clone', 'platform': 'windows', 'ip': 'X.X.X.134', 'arch': 'x64'} None None

$ ip rule
0:  from all lookup local
32764:  from X.X.X.134 lookup eno1
32765:  from X.X.X.133 lookup eno1
32766:  from all lookup main
32767:  from all lookup default

Then again, if everything is configured as expected, when executing the utility with the -d option the IP rules should disappear, reverting them to their original state.

If your routing configuration is correct, you should now be able to successfully ping If you disable the route you shouldn’t be able to ping anything on the Internet.


Sometimes ip rules may remain undeleted for several reasons. You can manually delete them with $ sudo ip rule delete from $IP, where $IP is the IP the rule refers to.

Debugging iptables rules

Every single time the CAPE Rooter brings up or down any route (assuming it works as expected) or you do so by using the utility, your iptables set of rules is modified in one way or another.

To inspect the changes being made and verify them, you can use the watch utility preinstalled in the vast majority of *nix systems. For example, to view rules created by CAPE-rooter or the utility you can run the following command:

$ sudo watch -n 1 iptables -L -n -v

You can also leverage watch to inspect the connections being made from the Guest to the Host or viceversa:

$ sudo watch -n 1 'netstat -peanut | grep $IP'

where $IP is the IP of your Guest.